In the mid-20th century, two new scientific disciplines emerged forcefully: molecular biology and information-communication theory. At the beginning, cross-fertilization was so deep that the term genetic code was universally accepted for describing the meaning of triplets of mRNA (codons) as amino acids. However, today, such synergy has not taken advantage of the vertiginous advances in the two disciplines and presents more challenges than answers. These challenges not only are of great theoretical relevance but also represent unavoidable milestones for next-generation biology: from personalized genetic therapy and diagnosis to Artificial Life to the production of biologically active proteins. Moreover, the matter is intimately connected to a paradigm shift needed in theoretical biology, pioneered a long time ago, that requires combined contributions from disciplines well beyond the biological realm. The use of information as a conceptual metaphor needs to be turned into quantitative and predictive models that can be tested empirically and integrated in a unified view. Successfully achieving these tasks requires a wide multidisciplinary approach, including Artificial Life researchers, to address such an endeavour.

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