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Publisher: Journals Gateway
Artificial Life (2015) 21 (3): 354–365.
Published: 01 August 2015
AbstractView article PDF
Three forms of creativity are exemplified in biology and studied in ALife. Combinational creativity exists as the first step in genetic algorithms. Exploratory creativity is seen in models using cellular automata or evolutionary programs. Transformational creativity can result from evolutionary programming. Even radically novel forms can do so, given input from outside the program itself. Transformational creativity appears also in reaction-diffusion models of morphogenesis. That there are limits to biological creativity is suggested by ALife work bearing on instances of biological impossibility.