The determinants and impacts of farm household participation in collective action for irrigation management in Chhattisgarh, India, are analyzed. Wealth or land holdings are not factors affecting participation, but minority castes are disproportionately less likely to participate. Participation is found to increase sufficiency of water in the canal, but not land productivity or per capita incomes. This highlights some of the major challenges with collective action that provides greater equality in access, but insufficient incentives to participate.

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