Although the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) was established at the end of 2015, some of the objectives remain for it to be fully realized, and many of the actions and measures in the AEC Blueprint have not been fully implemented and have to be carried forward to future years. Among these “works in progress” is transport and other physical infrastructure, which is necessary for the physical flows of goods and people. Analysis of free trade and economic integration agreements do not usually place emphasis on the importance of the physical delivery of the goods and people flows made possible by trade and investment liberalizations, particularly in geographically dispersed and diverse regions such as ASEAN. This paper examines the importance of physical connectivity to implement the AEC. It explores the various dimensions of land, maritime, and aviation connectivity with the complex agreements, national policies and regulatory frameworks and challenges of implementation and infrastructure financing, including the Chinese initiative of the One Belt-One Road and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank.

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