Jane Golley launched the discussion with two questions. First, Golley asked whether evidence from China's labor market in 2002 remains relevant in current policy discussions. Second, Golley questioned whether worker payments in the form of wages or bonuses result in any meaningful differences in worker decisions or worker effort.

Zhongmin Wu surmised that observed wages in the state sector are tied to worker experience. Although Ma, Walsh, and Wang's project tracks the effects of worker ages, Wu noted that age and experience are equivalent for workers in the state sector because workers in state firms tend to work a single job over time. In contrast, Wu noted that private sector workers are paid well in some Chinese locations.

Kozo Kiyota suggested that workers in state-owned firms may earn more when the state firms earn a monopoly premium, which can be used to support worker wages.

In comparing Ma, Walsh, and...

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