Kiyohiko Nishimura said that the Statistical Commission would like researchers to use an industrial firm-level database, but that database is protected by law. Data on Japan cannot be moved out of Japan. In actual practice, the database can be used or accessed onsite but thereafter, the data cannot be moved.

Masahito Ambashi stated that TFP characteristics and specification are “problematic, and firm heterogeneity is difficult to consider.” Because of data limitations, the specification should be re-examined. For example, the Herfindahl index can be used. Instrumental variables estimation can also be used. He also said that as the services industry is becoming important in ASEAN, this is also an important issue that needs to be addressed.

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