This paper focuses on policies to promote the greater use of regional currencies in intra-regional trade and investment. This will reduce the dominance of the U.S. dollar and lessen the region's exposure to U.S. monetary conditions and monetary policy. A key focus in this paper is on policies to help set up efficient currency exchange markets to reduce currency exchange transaction costs. This is fundamental, as high currency exchange spreads between local currencies discourage local currency usage for trade and investment. China's policy to internationalize the RMB and set up offshore direct foreign exchange markets between the RMB and other currencies is also highlighted. Other important issues include the Local Currency Settlement Framework, the Asian Bond Market Initiative, and Asian Bond Funds.

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