Manufacturing played an important part in sustaining India's economic growth in the 1970s and 1980s. The economic reforms of the early 1990s did not lead to sustained growth of the manufacturing sector. After an acceleration in the mid-1990s, growth slowed in the decade's second half. The analysis presented in this paper reveals that manufacturing-sector growth in the postreform period is “input driven” rather than “efficiency driven,” with significant levels of technical inefficiency. The paper advocates policies to improve production efficiency by encouraging investment in research and development, technical training for workers, and technology-aided managerial processes.