The evolution of investor rights in Japan is examined in relation to the evolution in firm-specific skill formation. Asset holders (shareholders and landlords) delegated part of the control of their assets to actual producers (managers, workers, and tenant farmers) to maximize the benefits of firm-specific skill formation by the producers. A cautious approach is therefore needed in adjusting investor rights in Japan to global standards: stronger investor rights could enhance allocative efficiency of financial resources, but they could also be harmful to organizational efficiency based on investment by employees in firm-specific skills.

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