International collaboration is considered to exert a positive effect on research performance. However, the impact of international collaboration on the performance of research institutions is under-documented. This paper fills the void in the literature by utilizing InCites data of 1,067 Chinese research organizations. The main results show that international collaboration promotes the performance of research organizations in general, but the effect varies according to the types of institutions. The organizations in less-developed regions are more affected by international collaborations than those in developed regions. The empirical results also demonstrate that the United States is the most important scientific collaborator of China.