Invisible Engines  
Invisible Engines  
How Software Platforms Drive Innovation  
and Transform Industries  
David S. Evans, Andrei Hagiu, and Richard Schmalensee  
The MIT Press  
Cambridge, Massachusetts  
London, England  
© 2006 Massachusetts Institute of Technology  
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any  
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data  
Evans, David S. (David Sparks)  
Invisible engines : how software platforms drive innovation and transform  
industries / David S. Evans, Andrei Hagiu, and Richard Schmalensee.  
p. cm.  
Includes bibliographical references and index.  
ISBN 0-262-05085-4 (alk. paper)  
1. Application program interfaces (Computer software). 2. Industries—Data  
processing. I. Hagiu, Andrei. II. Schmalensee, Richard. III. Title.  
QA76.76.A63 E93 2006  
005.3—dc22  
2006046629  
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1