Trace Metals and Infectious Diseases  
Strüngmann Forum Reports  
Julia Lupp, series editor  
The Ernst Strüngmann Forum is made possible through  
the generous support of the Ernst Strüngmann Foundation,  
inaugurated by Dr. Andreas and Dr. Thomas Strüngmann.  
This Forum was supported by funds from the  
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft  
(German Science Foundation)  
Trace Metals and  
Infectious Diseases  
Edited by  
Jerome O. Nriagu and Eric P. Skaar  
Program Advisory Committee:  
Rodney R. Dietert, Julia Lupp, Jerome O. Nriagu, Lothar Rink,  
Anthony B. Schryvers, and Eric P. Skaar  
The MIT Press  
Cambridge, Massachusetts  
London, England  
© 2015 Massachusetts Institute of Technology and  
the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies  
Series Editor: J. Lupp  
Assistant Editor: M. Turner  
Photographs: U. Dettmar  
Lektorat: BerlinScienceWorks  
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form  
by electronic or mechanical means (including photocopying, recording,  
or information storage and retrieval) without permission in writing from  
the publisher.  
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The book was set in TimesNewRoman and Arial.  
Printed and bound in the United States of America.  
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data  
Trace metals and infectious diseases / edited by Jerome O. Nriagu and Eric P.  
Skaar.  
pages cm. — (Strüngmann Forum reports)  
Includes bibliographical references and index.  
ISBN 978-0-262-02919-3 (hardcover : alk. paper)  
1. Trace elements—Toxicology. 2. Trace elements—Environmental  
aspects. 3. Communicable diseases. I. Nriagu, Jerome O., editor II. Skaar,  
Eric P. (Eric Patrick), editor.  
TD196.T7T725 2015  
614.4—dc23  
2014039756  
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1