The Constitution of Algorithms  
Inside Technology  
Edited by Wiebe E. Bijker, Trevor J. Pinch, and Rebecca Slayton  
A list of books in the series appears at the back of the book.  
The Constitution of Algorithms  
Ground-Truthing, Programming, Formulating  
Florian Jaton  
The MIT Press  
Cambridge, Massachusetts  
London, England  
© 2020 Massachusetts Institute of Technology  
This work is subject to a Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-ND license.  
Subject to such license, all rights are reserved.  
The open access edition of this book was made possible by generous funding from  
Arcadia—a charitable fund of Lisbet Rausing and Peter Baldwin.  
This book was set in Stone Serif and Stone Sans by Westchester Publishing Services.  
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data  
Names: Jaton, Florian, author. | Bowker, Geoffrey C., writer of foreword.  
Title: The constitution of algorithms : ground-truthing, programming, formulating /  
Florian Jaton ; foreword by Geoffrey C. Bowker.  
Description: Cambridge, Massachusetts : The MIT Press, [2020] | Series: Inside  
technology | Includes bibliographical references and index.  
Identifiers: LCCN 2020028166 | ISBN 9780262542142 (paperback)  
Subjects: LCSH: Algorithms--Case studies. | Computer programming--Case studies. |  
Algorithms--Social aspects. | Mathematics--Philosophy.  
Classification: LCC QA9.58 .J38 2020 | DDC 518/.1--dc23  
LC record available at