This article surveys work on Unsupervised Learning of Morphology. We define Unsupervised Learning of Morphology as the problem of inducing a description (of some kind, even if only morpheme-segmentation) of how orthographic words are built up given only raw text data of a language. We briefly go through the history and motivation of the this problem. Next, over 200 items of work are listed with a brief characterization, and the most important ideas in the field are critically discussed. We summarize the achievements so far and give pointers for future developments.

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Author notes


Centre for Language Studies, Radboud Universiteit, Postbus 9103, 6500 HD Nijmegen, The Netherlands/Department of Linguistics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. E-mail:


Språkbanken, Department of Swedish Language, University of Gothenburg, Box 200, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden. E-mail: