Abstract

Nowadays, deep learning models have been widely adopted and achieved promising results on various application domains. Despite of their intriguing performance, most deep learning models function as black-boxes, lacking explicit reasoning capabilities and explanations, which are usually essential for complex problems. Take joint inference in information extraction as an example. This task requires the identification of multiple structured knowledge from texts, which is inter-correlated, including entities, events and the relationships between them. Various deep neural networks have been proposed to jointly perform entity extraction and relation prediction, which only propagate information implicitly via representation learning. However, they fail to encode the intensive correlations between entity types and relations to enforce their co-existence. On the other hand, some approaches adopt rules to explicitly constrain certain relational facts. However, the separation of rules with representation learning usually restrains the approaches with error propagation. Moreover, the pre-defined rules are inflexible and might bring negative effects when data is noisy. To address these limitations, we propose a variational deep logic network that incorporates both representation learning and relational reasoning via the variational EM algorithm. The model consists of a deep neural network to learn high-level features with implicit interactions via the self-attention mechanism and a relational logic network to explicitly exploit target interactions. These two components are trained interactively to bring the best of both worlds. We conduct extensive experiments ranging from fine-grained sentiment terms extraction, end-to-end relation prediction to end-to-end event extraction to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

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Author notes

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School of Computer Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, 639798. E-mail: wangwy@ntu.edu.sg

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Corresponding author. School of Computer Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, 639798. E-mail: sinnopan@ntu.edu.sg

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