This article presents two methods to generate automatic improvisation using training over multidimensional sequences. We consider musical features such as melody, harmony, timbre, etc., as dimensions. We first present a system combining interpolated probabilistic models with a factor oracle. The probabilistic models are trained on a corpus of musical work to learn the correlation between dimensions, and they are used to guide the navigation in the factor oracle to ensure a logical improvisation. Improvisations are therefore created in a way in which the intuition of a context is enriched with multidimensional knowledge.
We then introduce a system creating multidimensional improvisations based on communication between dimensions via probabilistic message passing. The communication infers some anticipatory behavior on each dimension influenced by the others, creating a consistent multidimensional improvisation.
Both systems were evaluated by professional improvisers during listening sessions. Overall, the systems received good feedback and showed encouraging results—first, on how multidimensional knowledge can improve navigation in the factor oracle and, second, on how communication through message passing can emulate the interactivity between dimensions or musicians.