Abstract

Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has become a critical factor in promoting sustainable development. Meanwhile, book reading is still an essential method for cognitive development and knowledge acquisition. In developing countries where STEM teaching and learning resources are limited, book reading is an important educational tool to promote STEM. Nevertheless, public data sets about STEM education and book reading behaviors in emerging countries are scarce. This article, therefore, aims to present a data set of 4,966 secondary school students from a school-based data collection in Vietnam. The data set comprises of five major categories: 1) students' personal information (including STEM performance), 2) family-related information, 3) book reading preferences, 4) book reading frequency/habits, and 5) classroom activities. By introducing the designing principles, the data collection method, and the variables in the data set, we aim to provide researchers, policymakers, and educators with well-validated resources and guidelines to conduct low-cost research, pedagogical programs in emerging countries.

1. INTRODUCTION

Globally, technology has become a crucial component of our cultural, social, and economic landscape. Scientific and technological innovation is essential means to promote economic advancement and social justice. However, the emerging countries, which are lagged economically, are also markedly inferior in their research and technology developments [1,2,3]. Therefore, it is suggested that a focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education may serve as a useful direction for these nations. It is also a crucial factor to achieve United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)'s Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4—Quality Education [4]. In particular, STEM education can equip young people with the skills to adapt to the digital age and create life-changing opportunities for themselves and their families.

To improve STEM learning effectiveness, especially in developing contexts, reading is a critical element that needs addressing in the era of technology. Reading is a fundamental activity that helps enhance various cognitive capabilities, academic achievement, and educational and occupational attainment in young adulthood [5,6,7]. Children's technological problem-solving skills could be improved by developing a reading culture at home [7]. Furthermore, reading is also found to facilitate the creation of new ideas and inquiries for the problem-solving process involved in STEM learning [8]. Empirically, Braun et al. [9] and Fang and Wei [10] found that secondary school students in the United States who spend time reading additional books perform better in both reading and scientific subjects than those who do not. However, a majority of prior studies have been conducted in developed settings. In contrast, the topics regarding STEM performance and reading behaviors among children in developing countries remain understudied.

The lack of data might induce the research shortage in emerging countries. Observing multiple open globally-scoped data repositories (Mendeley Data, Zenodo, Harvard Dataverse, Figshare, etc.) and data journals (e.g., Scientific Data and Data in Brief), we found limited data sets on STEM education and reading behaviors among children. There are series of national survey data concerning children's educational conditions and performance. Still, the majority of them were conducted in developed countries, specifically Australia and United States [11,12].

Of those in developing contexts, a data set provided by Ranjeeth et al. [13] offers resources to investigate the relationship between Indian secondary school students' academic performance and outside-class habits. Nonetheless, it lacks focus on STEM-related achievement, and its questions are not systematically structured. Another set of data about Nigerian students' academic performance in STEM-related disciplines is also accessible on Data in Brief [14]. The contents are collected solely from undergraduate schools. Besides data sets made open on data repositories and journals, we have found a wide array of global data sets directly related to the SDG 4 on UNESCO Institute for Statistics's online database [15]. Those data sets are structured to scope the macro progress in achieving SDG 4's targets, whereas data sets concentrating on individual-level development are scarce.

Therefore, the current paper presents a highly organized and multifaceted data set regarding socio-economic status, family conditions, reading habits and preferences, perceived classroom activities, and academic performance among junior high school students in Vietnam. Vietnam is a unique case of an emerging nation that has been highly regarded for K–12 students' STEM achievement. Notably, Vietnam's students have recorded high-performance levels in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) over the three years in which they participated [16,17,18], despite recent participation. When putting this in alignment with Vietnamese households' comparatively limited socio-economic status, this significant attainment is a worth investigating case.

The current data set is a valuable resource to provide evidence that helps policymakers and education leaders to improve educational quality and equity. Given the low cost of a substantial data collection [19] and the shortage of earlier research on similar issues in emerging countries, the current data set and its design might be useful points of reference for other developing countries with similar context with Vietnam.

Several high-quality findings regarding book reading and STEM performance have been obtained and published using only a portion of the current data set [20,21,22]. A typical example is a recent publication that analyzes the social gap and gender disparity in Vietnam, which associates with STEM outcomes [20]. As the reproducibility crisis occurs across disciplines and hampering knowledge accumulation progress, Munafò et al. [23] encourage scientists to improve transparency through open science. Thus, the open access to the current data set will enable other researchers to replicate and validate the published findings, strengthening the results' integrity and reliability amidst the movement to make science more transparent [24,25].

2. METHODOLOGY

2.1 Data Collection Sample and Design

The current research's data [26] were collected through a school-based data collection of STEM performance, reading habits, and preferences of junior high school students (Grade 6 through Grade 9, which corresponds to age 11 to 15) in Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam. The data collection was conducted in two periods. The former was between December 2017 and January 2018, while the latter was from February until July 2018. In total, 4,966 responses of adolescent students were acquired.

The questions in the questionnaire were initially designed by Vuong and Associates office. Then, an officer in the provincial Department of Education and Training distributed the paper questionnaires to academic administrators of 16 public junior high schools in the area who were later in charge of gathering the questionnaire responses. All participants in the data collection process adhered to the institutions' ethical code responsible for the research.

The research project can be structured into five phases: 1) questionnaire design, 2) questionnaire collection, 3) quality control for questionnaire answers, 4) data set generation, and 5) data analysis.

2.2 Data Validation

For ensuring the quality and validity of the data, the data were rigorously checked several times in three phases of the data collection: 1) in-school phase, 2) gathering phase, and 3) computerizing phase (Figure 1). During the first phase, the homeroom teachers were in charge of collecting the questionnaires from students and initially checking the response accuracy and missing answers; then, the person who took care of the school academic activities was responsible for validating the collected questionnaires one more time. In the next phase, all the questionnaires from 16 schools were transferred to the data collection administrator—an officer in the provincial Department of Education and Training, for the third quality and validity check. After the examination, the administrator handed the responses over to the current study's principal investigator for the computerizing phase. During this phase, research team members entered the data into an MS Excel file and cross-checked the file to ensure that the inputted data precisely represented the answers on questionnaires. When there was doubt about the response, the team members consulted with the principal investigator for resolution. The research team contacted the data collection administrator for validation in case there existed serious errors.

Diagram of the data collection and validation.

Figure 1.
Diagram of the data collection and validation.
Figure 1.
Diagram of the data collection and validation.

The data set has been capitalized using both frequentist and Bayesian approaches in several publications, including [20,21,22]. From these works, various significant results have been found. Regarding socio-economic backgrounds, gender had a negligible correlation with students' STEM results at schools, and it was also found that female students can achieve better results than their male counterparts [18]. Regarding the correlation with reading behavior, empirical results also show that higher grades in STEM-related subjects are predicted by reading interest, with students who love reading books achieving higher scores than those who take no interest in books [19]. For raising the reading interest among students, scholarly culture at home and reading practices were suggested to be significant determinants [20].

In the current data descriptor, we also conduct an exemplary analysis using the current data set utilizing the Bayesian estimation and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique. The example is shown in Section 3 below.

2.3 Data Collection

Questionnaires were distributed to all classes in 16 public junior high schools by the academic administrators and then collected by the homeroom teachers. Eventually, 4,966 students' responses were received. Overall, boys' and girls' responses shared half of the sample (49.36% and 49.62%, respectively), while the remaining 1.03% (51/4,966) of the total students did not report their biological sex. The percentage of students among four grades (from Grade 6 to Grade 9) was proportionately similar with 24.90% (1,237/4,966) from the sixth grade, 24.04% (1,194/4,966) from the seventh grade, 23.86% (1,185/4,966) from the eighth grade, and 25.51% (1,267/4,966) from the ninth grade. A majority of the sample reported to like reading (88.40%), and 41.80% of students were the first child in their families. Students' average score of STEM-related subjects (“APS45”) and favorite type of books (“Topic”) are plotted in Figure 2.

Visual representations of students' information.

Figure 2.
Visual representations of students' information.
Figure 2.
Visual representations of students' information.

2.4 Response Coding

After receiving the hand-written questionnaires, the research team codified responses into 37 different variables, which could be classified into five main categories: 1) personal information (including STEM performance), 2) family-related information, 3) book reading preferences, 4) book reading frequency/habits, and 5) classroom activities. The variables' coding and a brief description of Categories 1 and 2 are shown in Table A1, while those of Categories 3 to 5 are displayed in Table A2. Below is a detailed explanation of each category's variables in the text.

  1. Personal information. The personal information category includes “Sex” (male, female), “Grade”, “School”, “APS45”, “APSVNEN”, “FutureJob”, and “Hobby”. The variable “APS45” represents the average scores of the most recent 45-minute examinations of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. In contrast, the variable “APSVNEN” indicates the average score of mid-term tests of Mathematics and other natural science subjects. As for “Hobby”, students were given six main kinds of activities, namely: reading books, watching TV/listening to music, housework/farming, observing nature, interacting with friends/family members, and others. For better utility, these activities were coded as “a”, “b”, “c”, “d”, “e”, and “f”, respectively.

  2. Family-related information. The second category regarding family-related information could be subsequently classified into three sub-groups. In the first sub-group, “RankingF” and “NumberofChi” demonstrate the student's birth order in the family and the number of children in the student's family, respectively. The second sub-group regards parents' characteristics, such as father's/mother's education (“EduFat”/“EduMot”), father's/mother's age (“AgeFat”/“AgeMot”), and father's/mother's career (“CareerFat”/ “CareerMot”). The educational level of the student's parents was captured in four levels: under high school (“UnderHi”), high school (“Hi”), undergraduate (“Uni”), and graduate school (“PostGrad”). The last sub-group focuses on the economic aspects of the family, including perceived economic status (“EcoStt”), awareness of the family's monthly income (“KnowledgeInc”), and estimated monthly income (“EstIncome”). The perceived economic status was coded as follows: “poor” = low-income family, “med” = medium-income family, and “rich” = wealthy family, whereas the variable “KnowledgeInc” only consists of two answers, “yes” or “no”. The students were asked to report their families' estimated income (“EstIncome”) in Vietnam Dong.

  3. Book reading preferences. The third category primarily concerns the reading preferences of students, which could be shown by seven variables. The reading interest of a student was referred to as “Readbook” (yes, no). Favourite type of book was captured as the “Topic” (mathematics/physics = “a”, literature = “b”, foreign language = “c”, natural science/chemistry/biology = “d”, history/geography = “e”, and information technology = “f”). Besides the favorite type of book, the prioritized book type when being gifted was represented by a categorical variable “Typebook” (novel = “a”, biography = “b”, popular science = “c”, arts = “d”, vocational instruction = “e”, and other = “f”). Subsequently, the reason of the prioritization was shown by the “Reason” (personal preferences = “a”, recommended by parents = “b”, recommended by teachers/friends = “c”, and serendipity = “d”). The “PrioAct” specifies the primary activity conducted by students when meeting a good book; it consists of “a” (sharing with friends/family), “b” (recording), “c” (applying the content to daily life), and “d” (reflecting and relating to personal knowledge). Students' prime activity after reading a good book was shown as the “AftAct” (finding more books on the exact issue = “a”, finding more books on the related issue = “b”, finding books on the new issue = “c”, and reading the book again = “d”). Eventually, the student was asked to provide two favorite books, of which the variable was recorded as the “Read_like”.

  4. Book reading frequency/habits. The fourth category comprises five variables respecting the reading habits of students. The first two variables, “TimeSci” and “TimeSoc”, concern the length of time students spent reading science books and literature/social sciences-related books daily, respectively. Both variables were coded as follows: less than 30 minutes = 1, between 30 and 60 minutes = 2, and over one hour = 3. Two other variables in this category are habits conducted by students' parents, such as buying books (“Buybook”) and reading stories (“Readstory”) for their children. These two variables were constructed with binary responses – “yes” or “no”. The last variable in this category was generated from the question regarding books' primary source (“Source”). To answer this question, students were asked to choose one alternative among buying books on their own or with parents' money (“buy”), borrowing from friends or libraries (“borrow”), or being gifted or rewarded (“gift”).

  5. Classroom activities. The classroom is an important place to build up students' reading behaviors, interests, and preferences. Therefore, we created a separate section with four questions in the questionnaire to examine students' perceptions of classroom activities. The first question, which corresponds to the binary variable “EncourAct” (yes or no), is to see whether students were keen on activities that encouraged reading. Then, students were asked to give the activity that they were most interested in (“MostlikedAct”) among the four following options: book exhibition = “a”, storytelling competition = “b”, story-writing competition = “c”, and illustrating books' content by drawing = “d”. Besides favorite activities that encouraged reading, we also examined students' perceptions of bookshelf conditions in the classroom (“Bookcase”). Students were required to assess the condition according to the following alternatives: diverse and interesting = “a”, lack of good titles = “b”, lack of book = “c”, and no bookshelf = “d”. The last variable (“Notread_like”) was generated from an open-ended question in which students could freely provide three favorite titles that they would like to read but were not available on the classroom bookshelf.

3. EXEMPLARY DATA ANALYSIS

The responses were initially inputted into an MS Excel file, and then converted to a comma-separated values (.csv) file. Bayesian linear regression applying the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique was employed for analyzing the data with the dependent variable being “APS45” (average score of the most recent 45-min tests of Math, Physics, Chemistry and Biology of students) and independent variables being “Readbook” (reading interest) and “Topicgr” (students' perceived economic status). Here, the Bayesian approach is preferable rather than the frequentist approach because of several replication issues induced by the P-value. Specifically, “the wide sample-to-sample variability” in the P-value and the P-hacking practices are two major contributors among reasons that exacerbate the reproducibility crisis [23,27,28].

The procedure was adapted from the Bayesian protocol for examining social data by Vuong et al. [29]. All the priors of the model's coefficients were set as uninformative before simulation. The bayesvl R package was utilized due to its user-friendly operation and graphical visualization power [30,31].

The Bayesian analytical model to examine the associations between “APS45” and “Readbook” and “Readstory” is defined as follows:

OAPS45α+Readbook+Readstory

The codes utilized in the R (version 4.0.2) for the Bayesian modelling and MCMC simulation are shown below:

The posterior coefficients of the estimation of “APS45” against “Readbook” and “Readstory” are displayed in Table 1. Table 1 presents the posterior estimates acquired from the Bayesian linear regression model employing “APS45” as a dependent variable and “Readbook” and “Readstory” as independent variables. Two independent variables were set as binary variables during the model fitting process with “yes” = 1 and “no” = 0. The model was fitted with four Markov chains, 5,000 iterations, and 2,000 warm-up iterations. After running the MCMC simulation, we obtain a good demonstration of convergence by two standard diagnostics: All coefficients' Rhat's values (Gelman shrink factor) were one, and all values of n_eff (effective sample size) were beyond 1,000 (Table 1). The visual diagnostic of Markov chains' convergence is also displayed in Figures 3 and 4. “Readbook” and “Readstory” coefficients obtained positive mean and acceptable standard deviation (μReadbook = 0.44 and σReadbook = 0.14; μReadstory = 0.14 and σReadstory = 0.09). Based on these results, we suggest that improving the interest in reading books and encouraging parents to read stories for their children might result in better STEM performance among students. The coefficients' posterior distributions are displayed in Figures 5A and 5B, the histogram and two-dimensional density plot, respectively.

Trace plots of MCMC draws of coefficients.

Figure 3.
Trace plots of MCMC draws of coefficients.
Figure 3.
Trace plots of MCMC draws of coefficients.

Gelman plots of coefficients.

Figure 4.
Gelman plots of coefficients.
Figure 4.
Gelman plots of coefficients.

Two-dimensional density plot of posterior estimates.

Figure 5.
Two-dimensional density plot of posterior estimates.
Figure 5.
Two-dimensional density plot of posterior estimates.
Table 1.
Estimated posterior coefficients.
CoefficientMean (μ)Standard deviation (σ)n_effRhat
Constant 5.66 0.14 4572 
“Readbook” 0.44 0.14 4570 
“Readstory” 0.16 0.09 7996 
CoefficientMean (μ)Standard deviation (σ)n_effRhat
Constant 5.66 0.14 4572 
“Readbook” 0.44 0.14 4570 
“Readstory” 0.16 0.09 7996 

4. USAGE NOTES AND CONCLUSION

The available data set offers several key features that can be used in future research. First, researchers can continue studying the relationship between children's reading habits and educational achievements. The effects of parental involvements, gender, and school activities on children's reading behaviors in an emerging context are also worth exploring. Evidence from these analyses will be beneficial to educators and policymakers, especially those in developing countries.

The deposition of the data set also allows researchers to replicate previous findings. Amidst the reproducibility crisis [23,27,28], replication is an important aspect to produce robust and precise evidence. Making the data set open also improves the transparency and published results' integrity and reliability. Thus, previous findings will be put under the scrutiny of post-publication review. Hopefully, this practice will support the cause of open access and prevent irreproducibility.

Finally, while the data set is an important asset, the survey's design principles are also valuable. We designed the study on a low-cost basis due to the limited fundings. The data set and its subsequent analysis have somewhat proved that this method is cost-effective. Thus, researchers from developing countries and those working with limited resources can use these design principles. In a larger context, we hope this method will also reduce the cost of science [19] and contribute significantly to scientific communities worldwide.

In conclusion, the current data set was systematically designed and collected. Hence, it provides researchers, policymakers, and educators with well-validated resources regarding secondary students' multifaceted aspects for formulating pedagogical programs and strategies in Vietnam and other countries, especially emerging countries with similar contexts.

AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS

Q.-H. Vuong (hoang.vuongquan@phenikaa-uni.edu.vn) designed the questionnaire, administered the data collection, and validated the data set. V.-P. La (phuong.laviet@phenikaa-uni.edu.vn) validated and supervised the data input process. T.-T. Vuong (thutrang.vuong@sciencespo.fr) and H.-M. Vuong (vuonghamy2003@gmail.com) contributed to the data input and validation process. T.-H. Pham (hang.pt.88@gmail.com) contributed to manuscript writing. M.-T. Ho (toan.homanh@phenikaa-uni.edu.vn) contributed to data input, validation process, and manuscript writing. M.-H. Nguyen (hoang.nguyenminh@phenikaa-uni.edu.vn) contributed to manuscript writing and software implementation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to send our gratitude to the research staff of Vuong & Associates (Hanoi, Vietnam) for assisting in collecting data, especially Do Thu Hang, Ho Manh Tung, Nguyen To Hong Kong, and Dam Thu Ha. Our most sincere appreciations also go on to personnel of junior high schools and provincial departments that provided support during the data collection.

CODE AVAILABILITY STATEMENT

Data were analyzed and visualized using the open statistical software R (version 4.0.2). All the code employed for generating figures and conducting Bayesian analysis was included in a PDF file available at https://doi.org/10.11922/sciencedb.j00104.00090.

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APPENDIX A

Table A1.
Description of variables related to personal and family information.
CategoryVariableVariable descriptionVariable level(s)Code/Data typeNumber (%)
1. Personal information Sex Biological sex Male 2,451 (49.36%) 
   Female 2,464 (49.62%) 
 Grade Grade Sixth grade 1,237 (24.91%) 
   Seventh grade 1,194 (24.04%) 
   Eighth grade 1,185 (23.86%) 
   Ninth grade 1,267 (25.51%) 
 School School's name Open answer Discrete data N/A 
 APS45 The average scores of the most recent 45-minute examinations of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology Open answer Interval data From 0 to 10 
 APSVNEN The average score of midterm tests of Mathematics and other natural science subjects Open answer Interval data From 0 to 10 
 FutureJob The student's favorite future job Open answer Discrete data N/A 
 Hobby The student's hobby Reading books 1,123 (22.61%) 
   Watching TV/listening to music 2,093 (42.15%) 
   Housework/farming 540 (10.87%) 
   Observing nature 145 (2.92%) 
   Interacting with friends/family members 332 (6.69%) 
   Others 682 (13.73%) 
2. Family-related information RankingF The student's birth order in the family Open answer Interval data N/A 
 NumberofChi The number of children in the student's family Open answer Interval data N/A 
 EduFat The student's father's educational level Under high school UnderHi 2,846 (57.31%) 
   High school Hi 1,308 (26.34%) 
   Undergraduate Uni 271 (5.46%) 
   Graduate school PostGrad 93 (1.87%) 
 AgeFat The student's father's age Open answer Interval data N/A 
 CareerFat The student's father's job Open answer Discrete data N/A 
 EduMot The student's mother's educational level Under high school UnderHi 2,854 (57.47%) 
   High school Hi 1,245 (25.07%) 
   Undergraduate Uni 417 (8.40%) 
   Graduate school PostGrad 93 (1.87%) 
 AgeMot The student's mother's age Open answer Interval data N/A 
 CareerMot The student's mother's job Open answer Discrete data N/A 
 EcoStt The student's family economic status Low-income family poor 379 (7.63%) 
   Medium-income family med 3912 (78.78%) 
   Wealthy family rich 525 (10.57%) 
 KnowledgeInc Whether the student is aware of the family's monthly income Yes yes 697 
     (14.04%) 
   No no 3953 (79.60%) 
 EstIncome Estimated monthly income of the student's family Open answer Interval data N/A 
CategoryVariableVariable descriptionVariable level(s)Code/Data typeNumber (%)
1. Personal information Sex Biological sex Male 2,451 (49.36%) 
   Female 2,464 (49.62%) 
 Grade Grade Sixth grade 1,237 (24.91%) 
   Seventh grade 1,194 (24.04%) 
   Eighth grade 1,185 (23.86%) 
   Ninth grade 1,267 (25.51%) 
 School School's name Open answer Discrete data N/A 
 APS45 The average scores of the most recent 45-minute examinations of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology Open answer Interval data From 0 to 10 
 APSVNEN The average score of midterm tests of Mathematics and other natural science subjects Open answer Interval data From 0 to 10 
 FutureJob The student's favorite future job Open answer Discrete data N/A 
 Hobby The student's hobby Reading books 1,123 (22.61%) 
   Watching TV/listening to music 2,093 (42.15%) 
   Housework/farming 540 (10.87%) 
   Observing nature 145 (2.92%) 
   Interacting with friends/family members 332 (6.69%) 
   Others 682 (13.73%) 
2. Family-related information RankingF The student's birth order in the family Open answer Interval data N/A 
 NumberofChi The number of children in the student's family Open answer Interval data N/A 
 EduFat The student's father's educational level Under high school UnderHi 2,846 (57.31%) 
   High school Hi 1,308 (26.34%) 
   Undergraduate Uni 271 (5.46%) 
   Graduate school PostGrad 93 (1.87%) 
 AgeFat The student's father's age Open answer Interval data N/A 
 CareerFat The student's father's job Open answer Discrete data N/A 
 EduMot The student's mother's educational level Under high school UnderHi 2,854 (57.47%) 
   High school Hi 1,245 (25.07%) 
   Undergraduate Uni 417 (8.40%) 
   Graduate school PostGrad 93 (1.87%) 
 AgeMot The student's mother's age Open answer Interval data N/A 
 CareerMot The student's mother's job Open answer Discrete data N/A 
 EcoStt The student's family economic status Low-income family poor 379 (7.63%) 
   Medium-income family med 3912 (78.78%) 
   Wealthy family rich 525 (10.57%) 
 KnowledgeInc Whether the student is aware of the family's monthly income Yes yes 697 
     (14.04%) 
   No no 3953 (79.60%) 
 EstIncome Estimated monthly income of the student's family Open answer Interval data N/A 
Table A2.
Description of variables related to book-reading preferences, book-reading frequency/habits, and classroom activities.
CategoryVariableVariable descriptionVariable level(s)Code/Data typeNumber (%)
3. Book reading preferences Readbook Whether the student is interested in reading book or not Yes yes 3,515 (70.78%) 
   No no 326 (6.56%) 
 Topic The student's most favorite type of book Mathematics/physics 705 (14.20%) 
   Literature 1,369 (27.57%) 
   Foreign language 367 (7.39%) 
   Natural science/chemistry/biology 934 (18.81%) 
   History/geography 558 (11.24%) 
   Information technology 711 (14.32%) 
 Typebook The student's preferred type of book if he/she is gifted, besides textbooks Novel 1,910 (38.46%) 
   Biography 351 (7.07%) 
   Popular science 576 (11.60%) 
   Arts 657 (13.23%) 
   Vocational instruction 728 (14.66%) 
   Other 676 (13.61%) 
 Reason The student's reason for choosing that type of book (subsequent variable of “Typebook”) Personal preferences 4088 (82.32%) 
   Recommended by parents 183 (3.69%) 
   Recommended by teachers/friends 345 (6.95%) 
   Serendipity 290 (5.84%) 
 PrioAct The student's primary activity when meeting a good book Sharing with friends/family 2,165 (43.60%) 
   Recording 1,034 (20.82%) 
   Applying the content to daily life 339 (6.83%) 
   Reflecting and relating to personal knowledge 1,360 (27.39%) 
 AftAct The student's primary activity after reading a good book Finding more books on the exact issue 2,420 (48.73%) 
   Finding more books on the related issue 826 (16.63%) 
   Finding books on the new issue 678 (13.65%) 
   Reading the book again 955 (19.23%) 
 Read_like The student's two most favorite books Open answer Discrete data N/A 
4. Book reading frequency/habits TimeSci The amount of time a student spent reading science book daily Less than 30 minutes 2,340 (47.12%) 
   Between 30 and 60 2296 (46.23%) 
   minutes   
   Over an hour 990 (19.94%) 
 TimeSoc The amount of time a student spent reading literature/social science book daily Less than 30 minutes 2898 (58.36%) 
   Between 30 and 60 minutes 1641 (33.04%) 
   Over an hour 255 (5.13%) 
 Readstory Whether the student's parents read a story for him/her or not Yes yes 1190 (23.96%) 
   No no 3484 (70.16%) 
 Buybook Whether the student's parents buy books for him/her or not Yes yes 4134 (83.25%) 
   No no 710 (14.30%) 
 Source The student's main source of book Buying books on their own or with parents' money buy 1659 (33.41%) 
   Borrowing from friends or libraries borrow 3140 (63.23%) 
   Being gifted or rewarded gift 120 (2.42%) 
5. Classroom activities EncourAct Whether the student is interested in activities that encourage reading Yes yes 4249 (85.56%) 
   No no 557 (11.22%) 
      
 MostlikedAct The student's most favorite activity that encourages reading Book exhibition 1796 (36.17%) 
   Storytelling competition 1210 (24.37%) 
   Story-writing competition 526 (10.59%) 
   Illustrating books' content by drawing 1092 (21.99%) 
 Bookcase The student's perception of the classroom's bookshelf condition Diverse and interesting 2230 (44.91%) 
   Lack of good titles 1237 (24.91) 
   Lack of book 348 (7.01%) 
   No bookshelf 1006 (20.26%) 
 Notread_like The student's three favorite books that are not available in the classroom's bookshelf Open answer Discrete N/A 
    data  
CategoryVariableVariable descriptionVariable level(s)Code/Data typeNumber (%)
3. Book reading preferences Readbook Whether the student is interested in reading book or not Yes yes 3,515 (70.78%) 
   No no 326 (6.56%) 
 Topic The student's most favorite type of book Mathematics/physics 705 (14.20%) 
   Literature 1,369 (27.57%) 
   Foreign language 367 (7.39%) 
   Natural science/chemistry/biology 934 (18.81%) 
   History/geography 558 (11.24%) 
   Information technology 711 (14.32%) 
 Typebook The student's preferred type of book if he/she is gifted, besides textbooks Novel 1,910 (38.46%) 
   Biography 351 (7.07%) 
   Popular science 576 (11.60%) 
   Arts 657 (13.23%) 
   Vocational instruction 728 (14.66%) 
   Other 676 (13.61%) 
 Reason The student's reason for choosing that type of book (subsequent variable of “Typebook”) Personal preferences 4088 (82.32%) 
   Recommended by parents 183 (3.69%) 
   Recommended by teachers/friends 345 (6.95%) 
   Serendipity 290 (5.84%) 
 PrioAct The student's primary activity when meeting a good book Sharing with friends/family 2,165 (43.60%) 
   Recording 1,034 (20.82%) 
   Applying the content to daily life 339 (6.83%) 
   Reflecting and relating to personal knowledge 1,360 (27.39%) 
 AftAct The student's primary activity after reading a good book Finding more books on the exact issue 2,420 (48.73%) 
   Finding more books on the related issue 826 (16.63%) 
   Finding books on the new issue 678 (13.65%) 
   Reading the book again 955 (19.23%) 
 Read_like The student's two most favorite books Open answer Discrete data N/A 
4. Book reading frequency/habits TimeSci The amount of time a student spent reading science book daily Less than 30 minutes 2,340 (47.12%) 
   Between 30 and 60 2296 (46.23%) 
   minutes   
   Over an hour 990 (19.94%) 
 TimeSoc The amount of time a student spent reading literature/social science book daily Less than 30 minutes 2898 (58.36%) 
   Between 30 and 60 minutes 1641 (33.04%) 
   Over an hour 255 (5.13%) 
 Readstory Whether the student's parents read a story for him/her or not Yes yes 1190 (23.96%) 
   No no 3484 (70.16%) 
 Buybook Whether the student's parents buy books for him/her or not Yes yes 4134 (83.25%) 
   No no 710 (14.30%) 
 Source The student's main source of book Buying books on their own or with parents' money buy 1659 (33.41%) 
   Borrowing from friends or libraries borrow 3140 (63.23%) 
   Being gifted or rewarded gift 120 (2.42%) 
5. Classroom activities EncourAct Whether the student is interested in activities that encourage reading Yes yes 4249 (85.56%) 
   No no 557 (11.22%) 
      
 MostlikedAct The student's most favorite activity that encourages reading Book exhibition 1796 (36.17%) 
   Storytelling competition 1210 (24.37%) 
   Story-writing competition 526 (10.59%) 
   Illustrating books' content by drawing 1092 (21.99%) 
 Bookcase The student's perception of the classroom's bookshelf condition Diverse and interesting 2230 (44.91%) 
   Lack of good titles 1237 (24.91) 
   Lack of book 348 (7.01%) 
   No bookshelf 1006 (20.26%) 
 Notread_like The student's three favorite books that are not available in the classroom's bookshelf Open answer Discrete N/A 
    data  
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