Each year on 17 November, the anniversary of the Czech Republic’s Velvet Revolution of 1989, NGOs and civic groups commemorate and celebrate the revolution with the Velvet Carnival (Sametové posvícení). Procession units showcase distinctive masks, leaflets, and music. Since key organizers of the first Velvet Carnival in 2012 were students of performance, religion, and philosophy, a central question among them has been the nature and function of ritual.

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