Abstract

In response to the COVID-19 crisis, school districts worked quickly to roll out distance learning plans in the spring. Sometimes these plans impinged upon or were directly in conflict with provisions found in collective bargaining agreements (CBAs) negotiated between teachers' unions and district administration. In this brief, we unpack how urban school systems changed CBAs to make way for learning under COVID-19 conditions. We review COVID-19–related contract changes in 101 urban school districts around the country. We find that twenty-five urban school districts returned to the bargaining table with teachers’ unions to negotiate short-term fixes to CBAs that allowed for more flexibility to implement distance learning. These contract changes focused on several areas of the CBA, including compensation, workload, non-teaching duties, evaluation, leave, and technology. We argue that the lessons learned in spring contract negotiations have implications for the design and implementation of fall schooling plans, and that how fall schooling plays out will shape teacher morale and labor relations beyond the 2020–21 school year.

Introduction

Adapting learning amid the COVID-19 crisis continues to redefine teachers’ everyday responsibilities and teaching practices. As school district leadership, administrators, teachers, and their labor representatives navigate the reality of COVID-19 schooling, questions regarding the impact of labor agreements on the ability to flexibly address student needs have arisen (Gerber 2020; Goldstein and Shapiro 2020). Collective bargaining agreements (CBAs) negotiated between teachers’ unions and school district leadership establish the working conditions and work rules for teachers in traditional instructional settings, not necessarily learning reimagined under COVID-19. Setting the expectations for most of teachers’ work, including performance evaluations, class sizes, work hours, professional development hours, and instructional time, a strict work-to-rule situation where contract language is not adapted or contract enforcement is not suspended could disrupt the ability of district and school leaders to adjust learning plans based on the spread of the virus. At the same time, failure to carefully attend to teacher working conditions as outlined in contract language could exacerbate teacher morale and lead to labor unrest.

So how did school districts and teachers’ unions navigate collective bargaining agreements with the move to distance learning instruction in spring 2020? And what can the actions that school districts and unions took in the spring signal for how district and unions approach, implement, and adjust CBAs and their role in shaping learning in the fall? This policy brief aims to unpack changes to CBAs as a result of the COVID-19 response in the largest districts throughout the country. Specifically, we explored changes in 101 urban school districts, finding that only twenty-five school districts formally altered contract language in their spring response to COVID-19 by signing Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) with their teachers’ unions. MOUs, like the contracts they amend, are legally binding agreements, but MOUs change contract language over a short time horizon and are often used in bargaining negotiations to address temporary situations. Although COVID-19 is impacting most, if not all, school districts throughout the United States, we focus on the largest 101 urban districts for two reasons. First, urban districts often have strong, active teachers’ unions and some of the most robust CBAs in the nation (Winkler, Schull, and Zeehandelaar 2012; Marianno et al. 2018). Second, several of these districts are located in metropolitan areas that have been deemed COVID-19 hotspots because of the high concentration of positive cases (Olin 2020). If changes to CBAs are necessary to adapt to COVID-19 anywhere, it is likely in these urban centers where union protections are stronger and where COVID-19 is more prevalent. We find that districts agreed upon a diverse set of changes, highlighting the localized nature of responses to the COVID-19 crisis, and showing that there is no one-size-fits-all approach. We conclude that as districts throughout the United States decide on future schooling plans under COVID-19, cooperation between districts and labor groups, including heightened transparency going forward, could help ensure that districts land on the most appropriate plan for their context.

Literature Review

Prior research on CBAs shows that contracts are resistant to change without a large precipitating event serving as an impetus for revision (McDonnell and Pascal 1979, 1988; Cowen and Fowles 2013; Ingle and Wisman 2018; Strunk and Marianno 2019; Strunk et al. 2018). McDonnell and Pascal (1979, 1988) study changes to content in 151 teacher CBAs from two time periods (between 1970 and 1975, and between 1980 and 1985) and find few substantive modifications. Cowen and Fowles (2013) and Ingle and Wisman (2018) explore CBAs in Kentucky over multiple decades and find that contract language remained fairly constant. However, other research shows that shocks to state budgets and top–down state policy changes can trigger modifications to local CBAs. For example, Strunk and Marianno (2019) find that pressures from the Great Recession required California school districts and teachers’ unions to revisit longstanding contract language. Strunk et al. (2018) find that state policies that reduce the scope of collective bargaining led to changes in CBAs in both Washington and Michigan.

The COVID-19 crisis and the likely budget cuts to follow in its wake may be the type of precipitating event that can cause substantial changes to the content of CBAs. These changes may occur during a normal negotiation cycle, but, more likely, given the need for a rapid response, will occur by negotiating an MOU to temporarily suspend or alter contract language. Alternatively, in lieu of negotiating actual changes to contract language, teachers’ unions and school districts could work together to implement distance learning plans, informally ignoring contract provisions that might run up against the required adjustments to teachers’ work schedules and the mode of instructional delivery. Unfortunately, the latter case is harder to observe and document empirically but looking at the number and content of MOUs signed can give us an idea of how many urban districts formally returned to the bargaining table with their labor partners to negotiate COVID-19-related changes to contracts. Additionally, although MOU adjustments are often temporary, they sometimes are folded into contracts on a longer-term basis. This is especially likely given the ongoing nature of pandemic-related disruptions to schooling. By investigating COVID-19 MOUs in urban districts, we can not only uncover how school districts had to adjust contract language to respond to disruptions caused by the virus in spring 2020 but also how contracts might change (or should change) on a more permanent basis as a result of the crisis as schools navigate learning plans for fall 2020.

Data

We searched for MOUs in 101 school districts covering all fifty states to understand the wide scope of actions districts were taking to accommodate the new demands of distance learning (see Appendix table A.1 for a full list of these school districts). The sample of 101 districts included the largest district in every state and eighty-three additional districts included in the Center for Reinventing Public Education's District Responses to COVID-19 School Closures database.1 Next, we performed Google Boolean searches between 9 April and 9 May 2020 to find MOUs, including the local teachers’ union name with “COVID MOU,” or the school district's name with “COVID MOU” in the search terms. If these searches did not immediately turn up relevant results, we reviewed school board minutes, and district and local union Web sites and Facebook pages for information on signed MOUs. Because of the rapidly changing nature of COVID-19, we conducted a second search for spring MOUs between 12 June and 19 June to ensure that we had an updated list and were able to add three districts (San Francisco Unified School District [USD]), Denver Public Schools, and Portland Public Schools) to the analysis. From these sources and the two phases of data collection, we uncovered a total of twenty-seven MOUs from twenty-five districts. These twenty-five districts educate about 6 percent of the total K–12 student population in the United States.

Comparison of MOUs

Figure 1 shows the main sections of a typical school district CBA (adapted from Johnson 1990). The bulk of traditional CBA content focuses on economic and organizational working conditions and rules (including those covering compensation, health benefits, layoffs, retirement, workload, nonteaching duties, transfers, class sizes, and evaluation); however, sections of the agreement also focus on physical and political working conditions and rules, including teacher leave, grievances (i.e., contract dispute procedures), and association rights (i.e., rules for how unions interface with their members and the school district).

Figure 1.

Topics Found in Teacher Collective Bargaining Agreements

Notes: Adapted from Johnson (1990).

Figure 1.

Topics Found in Teacher Collective Bargaining Agreements

Notes: Adapted from Johnson (1990).

Table 1 shows the sections addressed by the COVID-19 MOUs (ordered by section of the contract). We discuss each of the sections addressed by the MOUs in turn.

Table 1.
Topic Coverage of Signed COVID-19 Memorandums of Understanding in Urban School Districts, Spring 2020
WorkloadNonteaching Duties
StateDistrictDate SignedDate ExpiresComp.Work HoursGradingSupport StaffSPEDSubsPDCollaborationEvaluationLeaveTechMisc.
Total: 16 16 12 13 18 14 16 16 17 12 
CA Oakland Unified 4/5 6/30  
CA Los Angeles Unified 4/8 6/30  
CA Long Beach Unified 4/10 6/11        
CA Sacramento City Unified 3/20; 3/30 6/30          
CA San Diego Unified 4/2; 4/13 7/22  
CA San Francisco Unified 4/13 6/30    
CO Denver Public Schools 4/30 EOY          
FL Broward County Public Schools 3/30 6/30         
FL Miami-Dade County Public Schools 3/11 6/30         
FL Hillsborough County Public Schools 4/17       
FL Orange County Public Schools 3/18 6/30          
FL Pinellas County Schools 3/25 6/30      
FL Polk County Public Schools 3/20 6/30       
HI Hawaii Department of Education 3/19    
MD Montgomery County Public Schools 4/15 6/30 
MD Baltimore County Public Schools 3/30 6/30     
MA Boston Public Schools 4/17 6/30   
MA Beverly Public Schools 4/9 6/25    
MI Detroit Public Schools 4/18 6/19         
NV Clark County School District 3/19             
OH Columbus City Schools 3/25       
OR Portland Public Schools 5/7 6/30           
PA Pittsburgh Public Schools 4/8           
WA Seattle Public Schools 3/25 8/31       
WA Camas Public Schools 4/10 8/31     
WorkloadNonteaching Duties
StateDistrictDate SignedDate ExpiresComp.Work HoursGradingSupport StaffSPEDSubsPDCollaborationEvaluationLeaveTechMisc.
Total: 16 16 12 13 18 14 16 16 17 12 
CA Oakland Unified 4/5 6/30  
CA Los Angeles Unified 4/8 6/30  
CA Long Beach Unified 4/10 6/11        
CA Sacramento City Unified 3/20; 3/30 6/30          
CA San Diego Unified 4/2; 4/13 7/22  
CA San Francisco Unified 4/13 6/30    
CO Denver Public Schools 4/30 EOY          
FL Broward County Public Schools 3/30 6/30         
FL Miami-Dade County Public Schools 3/11 6/30         
FL Hillsborough County Public Schools 4/17       
FL Orange County Public Schools 3/18 6/30          
FL Pinellas County Schools 3/25 6/30      
FL Polk County Public Schools 3/20 6/30       
HI Hawaii Department of Education 3/19    
MD Montgomery County Public Schools 4/15 6/30 
MD Baltimore County Public Schools 3/30 6/30     
MA Boston Public Schools 4/17 6/30   
MA Beverly Public Schools 4/9 6/25    
MI Detroit Public Schools 4/18 6/19         
NV Clark County School District 3/19             
OH Columbus City Schools 3/25       
OR Portland Public Schools 5/7 6/30           
PA Pittsburgh Public Schools 4/8           
WA Seattle Public Schools 3/25 8/31       
WA Camas Public Schools 4/10 8/31     

Notes: Comp. = compensation; SPED = special education; Subs = substitute teachers; PD = professional development; Tech = technology; Misc. = miscellaneous.

Teacher Compensation

Sixteen of the twenty-five districts addressed teacher compensation and fifteen indicated no changes to base pay would occur during periods of COVID-19-related school closures. Seven MOUs indicated a reduction to some additional stipends based on work above and beyond the typical classroom duties that would have occurred after the school closure date. For example, Long Beach USD (CA) terminated additional payouts to teachers for Saturday school coverage and tutoring. Portland School District (OR) was the only school district with an MOU that changed the base pay for teachers when they moved to a four-day school week for the last ten weeks of the 2019–20 school year. This district's MOU agreed upon a prorated salary that reduced pay by a total of ten days. The lack of change to teacher pay in most districts is notable given the observed changes to teacher workload discussed below.

Teacher Workload

Work Hours

Twenty-two school districts agreed upon new workload requirements for their teachers. Sixteen of the twenty-two school districts established a minimum number of daily work hours and reduced teachers’ contracted workload by an average of 3 hours per day. Detroit (MI) and Baltimore County (MD) required teachers to report between 2 and 2.5 hours per day instead of the 7-hour workday specified in their respective CBAs. The following districts established a 3-hour workday: Miami-Dade (FL) (usually a 7-hour workday), Orange County (FL) (usually a 7.5-hour workday), Polk County (FL) (usually a 7.75-hour workday), Broward County (FL) (usually an 8.5-hour workday), and Beverly (MA) (usually a 6.5-hour workday). Los Angeles USD (CA) (usually an 8-hour workday), San Diego USD (CA) (usually a 6.5-hour workday), Boston (MA) (not addressed in the CBA), San Francisco USD (CA) (usually a 7-hour workday), and Montgomery County (MD) (usually a 7-hour workday) teachers must report for 4 hours a day. Pinellas County (FL) (usually a 7.5-hour workday) teachers must work 5 hours per day. Teachers in Hawaii, Pittsburgh (PA), and Hillsborough (FL) are required to continue to work the number of hours specified in their CBAs. This clearly demonstrates the wide variation in teachers’ virtual teaching workload requirements among districts.

The sixteen MOUs that established hourly expectations specified that these hours may involve activities such as delivering direct instruction, holding virtual office hours, or checking e-mails. All of the MOUs addressing work expectations allowed teachers to teach in synchronous (live virtual instruction) or asynchronous (pre-recorded video instruction) formats and gave them freedom to choose their own curriculum. Boston's MOU is the only contract that required 3 hours of live direct instruction per day in addition to 5 hours of asynchronous teaching per week. Pinellas, Boston, Detroit, and Baltimore County required teachers to set consistent teaching schedules so that students could attend classes at the same time every day. In Sacramento City USD (CA), Boston (MA), Oakland USD (CA), San Francisco USD (CA), and Camas Public Schools (WA), the MOUs required teachers to contact students and their families to ask about their physical and emotional health and well-being.

Grading Procedures

Twelve school districts altered grading procedures in their MOUs. The two most common changes in grading resulted in districts either instituting a system of Pass/Fail/Incomplete grades or stating that students’ final grades could not decrease from their grades on the day schools closed. Long Beach USD, Beverly School District, and Oakland USD implemented the former whereas Los Angeles USD, San Diego USD, San Francisco USD, and Hawaii utilized the latter. In addition, Los Angeles and San Diego required teachers to provide written or oral feedback to students on assignments in place of grades. The MOUs for Beverly Public Schools, San Francisco USD, and Oakland USD also included an equity clause exempting students from incomplete assignments if they had limited virtual access. Camas Public Schools and Montgomery County reported that grading would continue with minimal changes and Detroit had a combination of these options where teachers could input traditional letter grades or choose to grade students using the Pass/Fail metrics.

Student Support Staff

Thirteen school districts agreed upon MOUs that changed support staff provisions. Sections pertaining to support staff typically included guidance for school counselors and psychologists as well as occasional sections on social workers’ and paraprofessionals’ amended responsibilities. Montgomery County and Boston Public Schools outlined daily workload requirements for support staff at 6 hours and 3 hours per day, respectively. Los Angeles USD, San Diego USD, San Francisco USD, and Oakland USD created less strict hourly requirements for support staff but stipulated that support staff were to meet with students and families virtually by appointment. Beverly Public Schools’ MOU required counselors and psychologists to meet with students by appointment and assist in Individualized Education Plan (IEP) meetings, required paraprofessionals to support teachers and students directly with the transition to online learning, and required social workers to serve as a contact point with students’ families.

Special Education

Eight districts included sections related to special education. Generally, the language concerning special education teachers and services was relatively vague compared with other sections of the MOUs. This may be because, in many instances, special education is governed by state and federal statute and not the local CBA. For example, five of the eight MOUs simply used the phrase “uphold IEPs to the maximum extent possible” as guidance for the transition of special education to distance learning platforms. Baltimore County utilized slightly more specific language and allowed changes to IEP agreements to occur in virtual IEP meetings with parent approval to better suit the virtual learning circumstances. Two districts also outlined changes to the daily roles of special education teachers, such as Montgomery County, which required teachers to focus on administrative duties and case management instead of participating in virtual instruction time.

Substitute Teachers

Six districts included changes for substitute teacher compensation, the most infrequent topic covered out of the twelve areas analyzed. The MOUs in Los Angeles USD and Boston Public Schools outlined plans to continue to pay substitutes at the normal hourly rate. MOUs in Seattle Public Schools (WA) and San Diego USD outlined additional policies for short-term substitutes, anticipating a decrease in their workload. Substitutes in these areas who had worked a set minimum number of hours in the 2019–20 school year pre-closure continued to be paid a weekly rate. Montgomery County took a different approach, suspending all short-term substitutes for the month of April, allowing them to earn $75 a day for emergency coverage and the completion of one day of professional development.

Nonteaching Duties

Teacher Professional Development

Eighteen of the districts outlined some type of procedure for virtual professional development. Sacramento City USD, Pinellas Public Schools, and Boston Public Schools required teachers to complete certain professional development sessions offered by the district to ease the transition to virtual learning and provided training on different online collaboration platforms. Thirteen school districts offered optional professional development for virtual teaching sponsored by the district. Hawaii's MOU further stipulated that teachers would not be penalized for not completing their annual professional development hour requirements for the 2019–20 school year.

Teacher Collaboration Expectations

Fourteen school districts agreed upon new collaboration expectations for teachers. Beverly Public Schools’ MOU provided the most detailed requirements for virtual faculty meetings. All kindergarten through eighth-grade teachers were required to attend a content planning meeting once per week and a weekly grade level meeting, and new requirements for high school teachers included holding department planning meetings once per week. Whole-school staff meetings occurred once per week for kindergarten through eighth-grade teachers and twice per week for high school teachers. Other school districts, like Detroit and Hillsborough, made planning and faculty meetings optional for teachers, while others such as Long Beach USD noted only “necessary” meetings would be held. Denver Public Schools and Oakland USD held optional meetings that were recorded or transcribed to offer an alternative way for teachers and staff to participate.

Teacher Evaluations

Sixteen school districts enacted MOUs covering teacher evaluations, the majority of which set forth plans for an abbreviated form of evaluation. For example, teachers in Seattle who scored proficient or above in their last evaluation received a waiver for any further evaluations during school closures. Teachers scoring basic or proficient had either a virtual evaluation following procedures outlined in the CBA or were placed on a performance review plan for the 2020–21 school year. Other school districts, such as Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Long Beach, suspended all evaluations, and those that incorporated student assessments, like Hillsborough and Pittsburgh, withdrew those components.

Teacher Leave

Sixteen districts addressed the issue of employee leave in their distance learning MOUs. Two districts, Clark County (NV) and Camas Public Schools, allowed teachers to donate sick leave days to specified employees in the district. Camas Public Schools and Los Angeles USD also granted additional leave to teachers who missed days for COVID-19–related reasons. San Diego and Baltimore County allowed teachers to be reimbursed for sick leave taken in the days before virtual learning commenced. Hawaii agreed to cover sick leave for teachers quarantining due to potential COVID-19 exposure but required teachers to use their sick leave bank if they are caring for a sick family member.

Distributing Technology to Teachers

Seventeen of the twenty-five districts planned for teachers’ limitations in accessing materials needed for virtual teaching. Sixteen of the districts set forth plans that instructed teachers to report to principals or other school administrators to indicate their technology needs. In contrast, Orange County's MOUs stated that teachers and schools would “provide alternative arrangements” for these teachers. Columbus City Schools (OH) implemented a novel additional support for teachers—offering to pay the difference between a teacher's Internet bill for months with school closures and their regular Internet bill, up to $50 a month.

Miscellaneous

The most common change in the miscellaneous sections of MOUs added requirements to protect students’ identities in recorded lesson formats. In addition, Hawaii, San Diego USD, San Francisco USD, and Oakland USD reserved days for teachers to prepare for transitioning back and forth from in-person to virtual learning. Boston Public Schools’ MOU agreed to distribute 30,000 Chromebooks to students in the district, and Camas Public Schools’ contract was the only MOU that adjusted the school calendar and delayed the end of the school year to 19 June. Oakland USD decided to declare 8 May 2020 Educator Wellness Day, a non-duty day for teachers aiming to promote self-care and anxiety reduction. This section showcases how districts and unions utilized the MOUs as a tool to address a myriad of concerns to meet the specific needs of their districts, teachers, and students.

Implications for Policy and Practice

Districts and teachers faced many challenges and uncertainties surrounding virtual learning during spring of the 2019–20 school year, and will continue to do so as decisions are revisited during the 2020–21 school year. As these changes unfold, districts may continue to sign new MOUs that amend CBAs. Many of the current MOUs expired in summer of 2020, so these twenty-five districts may have to outline new procedures depending on the state of in-person education in their area. In addition, the other seventy-six urban districts we studied have yet to formally change their contract language to address the COVID-19 crisis. As districts work through fall instruction, school leaders and teachers’ unions are likely going to have to balance multiple realities, not the least of which are teacher morale and safety, student learning, and school budgets, all of which link to teacher contract provisions.

A series of surveys of teachers during the spring COVID-19 disruptions indicated high-levels of stress among the teaching workforce (Kraft and Simon 2020; Page 2020). This stress has likely not attenuated, especially as teachers voice safety concerns through their unions regarding fall learning (Belsha 2020). In an effort to address student needs and budget shortfalls, there may be an inclination to move towards rapid and heavy-handed changes to teacher CBAs to make way for fall learning plans. However, forceful changes to teacher working conditions further exacerbate already-low teacher morale. Prior research on collective bargaining negotiations suggests that the institutional memory is long for what is perceived by teachers and their unions as unfair, dishonest, or disingenuous labor practices (Bush-Mecenas and Marianno 2020; Marianno and Relles 2020). Actions taken by school leaders during the Great Recession, for example, came to shape labor negotiations and labor tensions in subsequent bargaining cycles (Bush-Mecenas and Marianno 2020; Marianno and Relles 2020), and were a likely driving and sustaining factor of the #RedforEd movement in which teachers across the country engaged in unprecedented labor action (Flannery and Litvinov 2018).

School leaders are going to have to carefully navigate teacher working conditions, an uncertain fiscal future, and student learning needs. Although education budgets are typically decided at least a year in advance, several states are making last-minute revisions to the 2020–21 education budgets to address shortfalls in tax revenues, allocate federal CARES Act funds, and assist with schools’ reopening. For example, Nevada just finished their special session to address a $1.2 billion budget gap for the upcoming fiscal year and landed on $166 million in cuts to K–12 education (Rindels, Snyder, and Messerly 2020). Spring MOUs largely held harmless teacher pay, even while reducing teachers’ expected work hours by an average of 3 hours per day. New economic realities may mean it is no longer possible to both reduce teacher workload (should districts not be able to maintain a normal face-to-face schedule) and preserve levels of teacher compensation. School districts could consider mostly costless contract enhancements, should economic concessions to teacher pay be necessary, as done during the Great Recession (Strunk and Marianno 2019). This could include, for example, providing or establishing a Sick Leave Bank for teachers caring for a sick family member, and/or lessening the burden of personnel evaluation systems by reducing the paperwork burden placed on teachers, reducing the required number of observations or standards on which they focus, or suspending measures of student growth (which will likely be confounded with prior and ongoing COVID-19 learning disruptions). Small contract enhancements do not appreciably impact student learning (either positively or negatively; Marianno and Strunk 2018), but could improve teacher morale.

What is clear from the spring MOUs is that districts and unions will need to work together to set teacher expectations under changing circumstances. By proactively planning for multiple scenarios with labor partners involved in conversations from the beginning, school districts can mitigate any late “surprises” from labor groups that might occur when it comes time to implement or change learning plans in response to COVID-19. Leaders can keep a pulse on teacher morale and safety and avoid perceptions of careless working condition changes by maintaining transparency and communication with teachers’ union leaders. Although we focus on teacher contract negotiations in this brief, labor groups besides those representing classroom teachers (and other certificated personnel, like paraprofessionals and counselors), such as bus drivers, maintenance workers, and janitors, should also be included in the conversation. A dynamic response to COVID-19 during the fall will likely require that unions and school district leaders revisit agreements early and often so they can flexibly adjust contracts and labor expectations to the ever-changing circumstances concomitant to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Note

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge Katharine Strunk, Ashley Jochim, and the anonymous reviewers for their comments on earlier drafts of this policy brief. The views expressed in this paper do not necessarily reflect those of Michigan State University or the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Responsibility for any remaining errors rests solely with the authors.

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.

Appendix

Table A.1.
School Districts Included in Search for COVID-19 Memoranda of Understanding
StateSchool DistrictStateSchool District
AL Mobile County Public Schools MO Kansas City Public Schools 
AK Anchorage School District MO St. Louis Public Schools 
AZ Mesa Public Schools MT Billings Public Schools 
AR Little Rock School District NE Omaha Public Schools 
CA Los Angeles Unified School District NV Clark County School District 
CA Fresno Unified School District NV Washoe County School District 
CA Long Beach Unified School District NH Manchester School District 
CA Oakland Unified School District NJ Newark Public Schools 
CA Sacramento City Unified School District NM Albuquerque Public Schools 
CA San Diego Unified School District NY New York City Department of Education 
CA San Francisco Unified School District NY Buffalo Public Schools 
CA Santa Ana Unified School District NY Rochester City School District 
CO Denver Public Schools NC Wake County School District 
CO Boulder Valley Public Schools NC Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools 
CO Aurora Public Schools NC Guilford County Schools 
CT New Haven Public Schools ND Bismarck Public Schools 
DE Red Clay Consolidated School District OH Columbus City Schools 
DC District of Columbia Public Schools OH Cincinnati Public Schools 
FL Miami-Dade County Public Schools OH Dayton Public Schools 
FL Broward County Public Schools OH Toledo Public Schools 
FL Duval County Public Schools OK Oklahoma City Public Schools 
FL Hillsborough County Public Schools OK Tulsa Public Schools 
FL Orange County Public Schools OR Portland Public Schools 
FL Pinellas County Schools PA School District of Philadelphia 
FL Polk County Public Schools PA Pittsburgh Public Schools 
FL The School District of Palm Beach County RI Providence Public School District 
GA Gwinnett County Public Schools SC Greenville County Schools 
GA Atlanta Public Schools SC Charleston County Public Schools 
GA Cobb County School District SD Sioux Falls School District 
GA Dekalb County Public Schools TN Shelby County Schools 
HI Hawaii Department of Education TN Metro Nashville Public Schools 
ID West Ada School District TX Houston ISD 
IL Chicago Public Schools TX Austin ISD 
IN Indianapolis Public Schools TX Arlington ISD 
IA Des Moines Public Schools TX Cypress-Fairbanks ISD 
KS Wichita Public Schools TX Dallas ISD 
KY Jefferson County Public Schools TX El Paso ISD 
LA Jefferson Parish Public School System TX Fort Worth ISD 
LA NOLA Public Schools TX North Side ISD 
ME Portland Public Schools TX San Antonio ISD 
MD Montgomery County Public Schools UT Alpine School District 
MD Baltimore City Public Schools VT Burlington School District 
MD Baltimore County Public Schools VA Fairfax County Public Schools 
MD Prince George's County Schools VA Richmond Public Schools 
MA Boston Public Schools WA Seattle Public Schools 
MA Beverly Public Schools WA Camas Public Schools 
MI Detroit Public Schools Community District WA Everett Public Schools 
MN Anoka-Hennepin School District WV Kanawha County Schools 
MN Minneapolis Public Schools WI Milwaukee Public Schools 
MS Desoto County School District WY Laramie County School District 1 
MO Springfield Public School District   
StateSchool DistrictStateSchool District
AL Mobile County Public Schools MO Kansas City Public Schools 
AK Anchorage School District MO St. Louis Public Schools 
AZ Mesa Public Schools MT Billings Public Schools 
AR Little Rock School District NE Omaha Public Schools 
CA Los Angeles Unified School District NV Clark County School District 
CA Fresno Unified School District NV Washoe County School District 
CA Long Beach Unified School District NH Manchester School District 
CA Oakland Unified School District NJ Newark Public Schools 
CA Sacramento City Unified School District NM Albuquerque Public Schools 
CA San Diego Unified School District NY New York City Department of Education 
CA San Francisco Unified School District NY Buffalo Public Schools 
CA Santa Ana Unified School District NY Rochester City School District 
CO Denver Public Schools NC Wake County School District 
CO Boulder Valley Public Schools NC Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools 
CO Aurora Public Schools NC Guilford County Schools 
CT New Haven Public Schools ND Bismarck Public Schools 
DE Red Clay Consolidated School District OH Columbus City Schools 
DC District of Columbia Public Schools OH Cincinnati Public Schools 
FL Miami-Dade County Public Schools OH Dayton Public Schools 
FL Broward County Public Schools OH Toledo Public Schools 
FL Duval County Public Schools OK Oklahoma City Public Schools 
FL Hillsborough County Public Schools OK Tulsa Public Schools 
FL Orange County Public Schools OR Portland Public Schools 
FL Pinellas County Schools PA School District of Philadelphia 
FL Polk County Public Schools PA Pittsburgh Public Schools 
FL The School District of Palm Beach County RI Providence Public School District 
GA Gwinnett County Public Schools SC Greenville County Schools 
GA Atlanta Public Schools SC Charleston County Public Schools 
GA Cobb County School District SD Sioux Falls School District 
GA Dekalb County Public Schools TN Shelby County Schools 
HI Hawaii Department of Education TN Metro Nashville Public Schools 
ID West Ada School District TX Houston ISD 
IL Chicago Public Schools TX Austin ISD 
IN Indianapolis Public Schools TX Arlington ISD 
IA Des Moines Public Schools TX Cypress-Fairbanks ISD 
KS Wichita Public Schools TX Dallas ISD 
KY Jefferson County Public Schools TX El Paso ISD 
LA Jefferson Parish Public School System TX Fort Worth ISD 
LA NOLA Public Schools TX North Side ISD 
ME Portland Public Schools TX San Antonio ISD 
MD Montgomery County Public Schools UT Alpine School District 
MD Baltimore City Public Schools VT Burlington School District 
MD Baltimore County Public Schools VA Fairfax County Public Schools 
MD Prince George's County Schools VA Richmond Public Schools 
MA Boston Public Schools WA Seattle Public Schools 
MA Beverly Public Schools WA Camas Public Schools 
MI Detroit Public Schools Community District WA Everett Public Schools 
MN Anoka-Hennepin School District WV Kanawha County Schools 
MN Minneapolis Public Schools WI Milwaukee Public Schools 
MS Desoto County School District WY Laramie County School District 1 
MO Springfield Public School District