Recently, Learning Classifier Systems (LCS) and particularly XCS have arisen as promising methods for classification tasks and data mining. This paper investigates two models of accuracy-based learning classifier systems on different types of classification problems. Departing from XCS, we analyze the evolution of a complete action map as a knowledge representation. We propose an alternative, UCS, which evolves a best action map more efficiently. We also investigate how the fitness pressure guides the search towards accurate classifiers. While XCS bases fitness on a reinforcement learning scheme, UCS defines fitness from a supervised learning scheme. We find significant differences in how the fitness pressure leads towards accuracy, and suggest the use of a supervised approach specially for multi-class problems and problems with unbalanced classes. We also investigate the complexity factors which arise in each type of accuracy-based LCS. We provide a model on the learning complexity of LCS which is based on the representative examples given to the system. The results and observations are also extended to a set of real world classification problems, where accuracy-based LCS are shown to perform competitively with respect to other learning algorithms. The work presents an extended analysis of accuracy-based LCS, gives insight into the understanding of the LCS dynamics, and suggests open issues for further improvement of LCS on classification tasks.

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