This paper analyses the convergence of evolutionary algorithms using a technique which is based on a stochastic Lyapunov function and developed within the martingale theory. This technique is used to investigate the convergence of a simple evolutionary algorithm with self-adaptation, which contains two types of parameters: fitness parameters, belonging to the domain of the objective function; and control parameters, responsible for the variation of fitness parameters. Although both parameters mutate randomly and independently, they converge to the floptimumfl due to the direct (for fitness parameters) and indirect (for control parameters) selection. We show that the convergence velocity of the evolutionary algorithm with self-adaptation is asymptotically exponential, similar to the velocity of the optimal deterministic algorithm on the class of unimodal functions. Although some martingale inequalities have not be proved analytically, they have been numerically validated with 0.999 confidence using Monte-Carlo simulations.