The probabilistic model building performed by estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs) enables these methods to use advanced techniques of statistics and machine learning for automatic discovery of problem structures. However, in some situations, it may not be possible to completely and accurately identify the whole problem structure by probabilistic modeling due to certain inherent properties of the given problem. In this work, we illustrate one possible cause of such situations with problems consisting of structures with unequal fitness contributions. Based on the illustrative example, we introduce a notion that the estimated probabilistic models should be inspected to reveal the effective search directions and further propose a general approach which utilizes a reserved set of solutions to examine the built model for likely inaccurate fragments. Furthermore, the proposed approach is implemented on the extended compact genetic algorithm (ECGA) and experiments are performed on several sets of additively separable problems with different scaling setups. The results indicate that the proposed method can significantly assist ECGA to handle problems comprising structures of disparate fitness contributions and therefore may potentially help EDAs in general to overcome those situations in which the entire problem structure cannot be recognized properly due to the temporal delay of emergence of some promising partial solutions.
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