Abstract

The performance of image classification is highly dependent on the quality of the extracted features that are used to build a model. Designing such features usually requires prior knowledge of the domain and is often undertaken by a domain expert who, if available, is very costly to employ. Automating the process of designing such features can largely reduce the cost and efforts associated with this task. Image descriptors, such as local binary patterns, have emerged in computer vision, and aim at detecting keypoints, for example, corners, line-segments, and shapes, in an image and extracting features from those keypoints. In this article, genetic programming (GP) is used to automatically evolve an image descriptor using only two instances per class by utilising a multitree program representation. The automatically evolved descriptor operates directly on the raw pixel values of an image and generates the corresponding feature vector. Seven well-known datasets were adapted to the few-shot setting and used to assess the performance of the proposed method and compared against six handcrafted and one evolutionary computation-based image descriptor as well as three convolutional neural network (CNN) based methods. The experimental results show that the new method has significantly outperformed the competitor image descriptors and CNN-based methods. Furthermore, different patterns have been identified from analysing the evolved programs.

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