This paper examines the social and political consequences of natural resource scarcity on three Pacific island territories: Easter Island, Nauru and Solomon Islands. In contrast to prominent theories in the environmental security literature, the case studies in this paper indicate that resource scarcity does not perforce lead to violent conflict. The authors explain differential outcomes on the basis of four variables: extent of scarcity; level of democracy; degree of economic openness; and involvement in regional regimes.

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