What is the impact on perceptions of legitimacy and efficacy when key stake-holders are absent during the creation of international standards? Can these international standards setting bodies adequately address the needs of all countries when often working in the absence of developing countries? This study examines the process through which one international environmental management standard (ISO 14001) was created and analyzes its perceived legitimacy and efficacy among developing country stakeholders relative to those from developed countries. Data for this project come from interviews with 42 delegates to the ISO 14000 standards-drafting sessions in Malaysia and 133 surveys of ISO 14001 certified firms in 16 countries. The article concludes that stakeholder absence impacts both legitimacy and efficacy of ISO 14001 in interesting and unexpected ways.

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