Mechatronic devices installed as Ecosystem Management and Monitoring Units, EMUs, are an emerging trend with the potential to improve our understanding of natural and agricultural ecosystems. They may improve biodiversity and provide socio-economic benefits, but if poorly implemented such technology can undermine conservation efforts, damage habitat and drive people into poverty. This article proposes draft guidelines that help to ensure EMUs embedded within ecosystems generate more global benefit than harm, preserve the aesthetic and cultural value of their environment, and kill organisms only as a last resort.

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