Drawing on recently declassified documents from the archive of the Foreign Ministry of the People's Republic of China (PRC), this article looks at China's relationship with North Korea during and immediately after the Korean War. Although previous scholarship has touched on PRC-North Korean military ties during the war, this article is the first in-depth analysis of issues that are less well understood, notably China's efforts to cope with a huge influx of refugees from North Korea, the PRC's economic assistance during the war and in the early postwar reconstruction, and Chinese educational and ideological support for North Korean professionals and party cadres. The article shows that the extensive military coordination between Beijing and Pyongyang was only one way in which the war brought North Korea and the PRC into a closer relationship.

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