This article builds on the analysis published by Kristina Spohr-Readman in the Fall 2012 issue of the JCWS about the decision in December 1979 by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to deploy intermediate-range nuclear forces in Europe. Spohr-Readman's article drew heavily on declassified documents from NATO countries, but information from those who took part in the deliberations (of whom Gaffney was one) sheds further light on the matter and changes a few aspects of the story, particularly regarding U.S. officials' views of the utility (or lack thereof) of battlefield nuclear weapons.

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