President Richard Nixon's declaration in 1969 during a visit to the U.S. island of Guam that Asian nations would need increasingly to take responsibility for their own defense has generally been viewed as the first indication of the adoption of a policy of no new involvement in Southeast Asia. By the time that statement, known as the Guam or Nixon Doctrine, was made, Nixon had already begun to withdraw troops from South Vietnam. Nixon's speech was closely associated with U.S. involvement in Vietnam and future defense planning. During a speech on 3 November 1969 in which he outlined America's position in Vietnam, Nixon provided three guidelines for future U.S. policy in Asia. The first was that the United States would continue to fulfill its treaty obligations. The second was...

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