Finland's fertility decline started in the 1880s among educated people, and in the 1910s among the masses. By the late 1930s, fertility had started to decline even at the most remote areas. Various documents, such as newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, and ethnographic collections, show that although mechanical, quasimodern contraceptives were widely sold and actively marketed in Finland by the early twentieth century, they were mostly used by the upper social segments of the population, and, to some extent, by the working classes of the urban and industrial centers. The primary methods of birth control used by the masses were withdrawal, often in connection with douching and abortion.

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