Until the start of the twentieth century, the occupational structure of Jews in Amsterdam can be described as an ethnic-enclave economy, heavily concentrated in the trading and diamond industries. By 1941, however, Jews had taken advantage of other occupational opportunities, increasing their presence significantly within the new middle class that had begun to emerge during the Industrial Revolution. Analysis of the careers of 336 males of Jewish origin shows that those who became religiously unaffiliated were more likely to experience upward mobility than those who remained members of a Jewish congregation. The results also indicate that, despite their gains, Jews who remained in their religion did not attain equal access to the upper-middle and elite classes in 1941.

This content is only available as a PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.