The problem with deªning operatic Modernism is that, unlike Modernism in architecture, it did not have a single language that united the movement across Europe. In opera there was certainly an organizational component, notably represented by the Kroll Opera House in Berlin. But in musical terms, we have to accept two kinds of Modernism, represented by Rosenkavalier and Wozzeck.

In accordance with Carl Schorske's wishes, this transcript retains the informal oral tone of its presentation at the conference from which this special issue derived.

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