Although by the twentieth century, industrial-capitalist fishing methods were already disrupting the Basque fishing brotherhoods (cofradías), the collective voice of the fishermen and their communities, artisanal fishing, and the traditional customs surrounding it managed to survive for a few more decades. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, however, the future for local Basque fishermen looks bleak. Due to factors beyond their control, the brotherhoods, which for a long time guaranteed both an ecological balance in the sea and common wealth among the fishermen, have become totally defunct.

This content is only available as a PDF.