Although the issues of immigration and integration remain within the purview of the state, states face new challenges that affect their relationship with immigrants inside and outside their boundaries. Within the eu, the coordination of policies to protect common borders from flows of immigration has forced states to re-assess their treatment of immigrants. Moreover, immigrants with the status of permanent residents or legal citizens in their adopted state increasingly foster solidarity networks across national borders on the grounds of one or more identities, thus linking their home country to their country of residence and, in the case of the eu, to a broader European space. The emergence of transnational associations underscores the development of multiple interactions between national societies, between national and supranational institutions, and between member states of the eu that continue to reshape the nature and scope of negotiations between states and immigrants.

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