We used fMRI to directly compare the neural substrates of three-dimensional (3-D) shape and motion processing for realistic textured objects rotating in depth. Subjects made judgments about several different attributes of these objects, including 3-D shape, the 3-D motion, and the scale of surface texture. For all of these tasks, we equated visual input, motor output, and task difficulty, and we controlled for differences in spatial attention. Judgments about 3-D shape from motion involve both parietal and occipito-temporal regions. The processing of 3-D shape is associated with the analysis of 3-D motion in parietal regions and the analysis of surface texture in occipito-temporal regions, which is consistent with the different behavioral roles that are typically attributed to the dorsal and ventral processing streams.