Recent research has focused on decision-making under risk and its neural bases. Two kinds of bad decisions under risk may be defined: too risky decisions and too cautious decisions. Here we show that suboptimal decisions of both kinds lead to increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex in a Blackjack gambling task. Moreover, this increased activity is related to the avoidance of the negatively evaluated decision under risk. These findings complement other results suggesting an important role of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in reward-based decision-making and conflict resolution.

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