Studies on H.M. generated five main findings: that memory is a distinct psychological function, that amnesia spares short-term and working memory, that amnesia is an impairment of declarative and episodic memory, that the hippocampus is a core brain structure supporting memory, and that the hippocampus supports the permanent consolidation of memories. Each of these basic findings has recently been challenged, but a consideration of these studies suggests the new observations serve to support the original findings on H.M. and improve our understanding of the memory functions of the hippocampal system.

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