Previous studies have suggested that the posterior parietal cortices and premotor areas are involved in mental image transformation. However, it remains unknown whether these regions really cooperate to realize mental image transformation. In this study, simultaneous EEG and fMRI were performed to clarify the spatio-temporal properties of neural networks engaged in mental image transformation. We adopted a modified version of the mental clock task used by Sack et al. [Sack, A. T., Camprodon, J. A., Pascual-Leone, A., & Goebel, R. The dynamics of interhemispheric compensatory processes in mental imagery. Science, 308, 702–704, 2005; Sack, A. T., Sperling, J. M., Prvulovic, D., Formisano, E., Goebel, R., Di Salle, F., et al. Tracking the mind's image in the brain II: Transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals parietal asymmetry in visuospatial imagery. Neuron, 35, 195–204, 2002]. In the modified mental clock task, participants mentally rotated clock hands from the position initially presented at a learned speed for various durations. Subsequently, they matched the position to the visually presented clock hands. During mental rotation of the clock hands, we observed significant beta EEG suppression with respect to the amount of mental rotation at the right parietal electrode. The beta EEG suppression accompanied activity in the bilateral parietal cortices and left premotor cortex, representing a dynamic cortical network for mental image transformation. These results suggest that motor signals from the premotor area were utilized for mental image transformation in the parietal areas and for updating the imagined clock hands represented in the right posterior parietal cortex.

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