Evidence from fMRI has consistently located a widespread network of frontal, parietal, and temporal lobe regions during episodic retrieval. However, the temporal limitations of the fMRI methodology have made it difficult to assess the transient network dynamics by which these distributed regions coordinate activity. Recent evidence suggests that beta oscillations (17–20 Hz) are important for top–down control for memory suppression. However, the spatial limitations of the EEG methodology make it difficult to assess the relationship between these oscillatory signals and the distributed networks identified with fMRI. This study used simultaneous EEG/fMRI to identify networks related to beta oscillations during episodic retrieval. Participants studied adjectives and either imagined a scene (Place Task) or judged its pleasantness (Pleasant Task). During the recognition test, participants decided which task was performed with each word (“Old Place Task” or “Old Pleasant Task”) or “New.” EEG results revealed that posterior beta power was greater for new than old words. fMRI results revealed activity in a frontal, parietal network that was greater for old than new words, consistent with prior studies. Although overall beta power increases correlated with decreased activity within a predominantly parietal network, within the right dorsolateral and ventrolateral pFC, beta power correlated with BOLD activity more under conditions requiring more cognitive control and EEG/fMRI effects in the right frontal cortex correlated with BOLD activity in a frontoparietal network. Therefore, using simultaneous EEG and fMRI, the present results suggest that beta oscillations are related to postretrieval control operations in the right frontal cortex and act within a broader postretrieval control network.

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