Converging evidence points to a role for the hippocampus in statistical learning, but open questions about its necessity remain. Evidence for necessity comes from Schapiro and colleagues who report that a single patient with damage to hippocampus and broader medial temporal lobe cortex was unable to discriminate new from old sequences in several statistical learning tasks. The aim of the current study was to replicate these methods in a larger group of patients who have either damage localized to hippocampus or broader medial temporal lobe damage, to ascertain the necessity of the hippocampus in statistical learning. Patients with hippocampal damage consistently showed less learning overall compared with healthy comparison participants, consistent with an emerging consensus for hippocampal contributions to statistical learning. Interestingly, lesion size did not reliably predict performance. However, patients with hippocampal damage were not uniformly at chance and demonstrated above-chance performance in some task variants. These results suggest that hippocampus is necessary for statistical learning levels achieved by most healthy comparison participants but significant hippocampal pathology alone does not abolish such learning.

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