Neural oscillations in distinct frequency bands in the prefrontal cortex (pFC) are associated with specialized roles during cognitive control. How dopamine modulates oscillations to structure pFC functions remains unknown. We trained macaques to switch between two numerical rules and recorded local field potentials from pFC while applying dopamine receptor targeting drugs using microiontophoresis. We show that the D1 and D2 family receptors (D1Rs and D2Rs, respectively) specifically altered internally generated prefrontal oscillations, whereas sensory-evoked potentials remained unchanged. Blocking D1Rs or stimulating D2Rs increased low-frequency theta and alpha oscillations known to be involved in learning and memory. In contrast, only D1R inhibition enhanced high-frequency beta oscillations, whereas only D2R stimulation increased gamma oscillations linked to top–down and bottom–up attentional processing. These findings suggest that dopamine alters neural oscillations relevant for executive functioning through dissociable actions at the receptor level.