It is difficult to predict whether newly learned information will be retrievable in the future. A biomarker of long-lasting learning, capable of predicting an individual's future ability to retrieve a particular memory, could positively influence teaching and educational methods. ERPs were investigated as a potential biomarker of long-lasting learning. Prior ERP studies have supported a dual-process model of recognition memory that categorizes recollection and familiarity as distinct memorial processes with distinct ERP correlates. The late positive component is thought to underlie conscious recollection and the frontal N400 signal is thought to reflect familiarity [Yonelinas, A. P. Components of episodic memory: The contribution of recollection and familiarity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 356, 1363–1374, 2001]. Here we show that the magnitude of the late positive component, soon after initial learning, is predictive of subsequent recollection of anatomical terms among medical students 6 months later.