Inhibitory control, the capacity to suppress an inappropriate response, is a process employed for guiding action selection in the service of goal-directed behavior. Under neutral circumstances, inhibitory control success improves from childhood to adulthood and has been associated with developmental shifts in functional activation and connectivity of the PFC. However, the ability to exercise inhibitory control is challenged in certain contexts by including appetitive cues, a phenomenon that may be particularly pronounced in youths. Here, we examine the magnitude and temporal persistence of learned value's influence on inhibitory control in a cross-sectional sample of 8- to 25-year-olds. Participants first underwent conditioning of a motor approach response to two initially neutral cues, with one cue reinforced with monetary reward and the other with no monetary outcome. Subsequently, during fMRI, participants reencountered these cues as no-go targets in a nonreinforced go/no-go paradigm. Although the influence of learned value increasingly disrupted inhibitory control with increasing age, in young adults this pattern remitted over the course of the task, whereas during adolescence the impairing effect of reward history persisted. Successful no-go performance to the previously rewarded target was related to greater recruitment of the right inferior frontal gyrus and age-related increase in functional connectivity between the inferior frontal gyrus and the ventromedial PFC for the previously rewarded no-go target over the control target. Together, results indicate the complex influence of value on goals over development relies upon the increased coordination of distinct higher-order regions in the PFC.

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