Behavioral research in human verbal memory function led to the initial definition of episodic memory and semantic memory. A complete model of the neural mechanisms of episodic memory must include the capacity to encode and mentally reconstruct everything that humans can recall from their experience. This article proposes new model features necessary to address the complexity of episodic memory encoding and recall in the context of broader cognition and the functional properties of neurons that could contribute to this broader scope of memory. Many episodic memory models represent individual snapshots of the world with a sequence of vectors, but a full model must represent complex functions encoding and retrieving the relations between multiple stimulus features across space and time on multiple hierarchical scales. Episodic memory involves not only the space and time of an agent experiencing events within an episode but also features shown in neurophysiological data such as coding of speed, direction, boundaries, and objects. Episodic memory includes not only a spatio-temporal trajectory of a single agent but also segments of spatio-temporal trajectories for other agents and objects encountered in the environment consistent with data on encoding the position and angle of sensory features of objects and boundaries. We will discuss potential interactions of episodic memory circuits in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex with distributed neocortical circuits that must represent all features of human cognition.

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