Working memory is where thoughts are held and manipulated. For many years, the dominant model was that working memory relied on steady-state neural dynamics. A neural representation was activated and then held in that state. However, as often happens, the more we examine working memory (especially with new technology), the more complex it looks. Recent discoveries show that working memory involves multiple mechanisms, including discontinuous bouts of spiking. Memories are also dynamic, evolving in a task-dependent manner. Cortical rhythms may control those dynamics, thereby endowing top–down “executive” control over our thoughts.

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