Despite the many mistakes we make while speaking, people can effectively communicate because we monitor our speech errors. However, the cognitive abilities and brain structures that support speech error monitoring are unclear. There may be different abilities and brain regions that support monitoring phonological speech errors versus monitoring semantic speech errors. We investigated speech, language, and cognitive control abilities that relate to detecting phonological and semantic speech errors in 41 individuals with aphasia who underwent detailed cognitive testing. Then, we used support vector regression lesion symptom mapping to identify brain regions supporting detection of phonological versus semantic errors in a group of 76 individuals with aphasia. The results revealed that motor speech deficits as well as lesions to the ventral motor cortex were related to reduced detection of phonological errors relative to semantic errors. Detection of semantic errors selectively related to auditory word comprehension deficits. Across all error types, poor cognitive control related to reduced detection. We conclude that monitoring of phonological and semantic errors relies on distinct cognitive abilities and brain regions. Furthermore, we identified cognitive control as a shared cognitive basis for monitoring all types of speech errors. These findings refine and expand our understanding of the neurocognitive basis of speech error monitoring.