Humans can flexibly adjust their executive control to resolve conflicts. Conflict adaptation and conflict resolution are crucial aspects of conflict processing. Functional neuroimaging studies have associated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) with conflict processing, but its causal role remains somewhat controversial. Moreover, the neuroanatomical basis of conflict processing has not been thoroughly examined. In this study, the Stroop task, a well-established measure of conflict, was employed to investigate (1) the neuroanatomical basis of conflict resolution and conflict adaptation with the voxel-based morphometry analysis, (2) the causal role of DLPFC in conflict processing with the application of the continuous theta burst stimulation to DLPFC. The results revealed that the Stroop effect was correlated to the gray matter volume of the precuneus, postcentral gyrus, and cerebellum, and the congruency sequence effect was correlated to the gray matter volume of superior frontal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, and lobule paracentral gyrus. These findings indicate the neuroanatomical basis of conflict resolution and adaptation. In addition, the continuous theta burst stimulation over the right DLPFC resulted in a significant reduction in the Stroop effect of RT after congruent trials compared with vertex stimulation and a significant increase in the Stroop effect of accuracy rate after incongruent trials than congruent trials, demonstrating the causal role of right DLPFC in conflict adaptation. Moreover, the DLPFC stimulation did not affect the Stroop effect of RT and accuracy rate. Overall, our study offers further insights into the neural mechanisms underlying conflict resolution and adaptation.

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