The papers collected in this Special Focus, prompted by Buergers and Noppeney (2022), have raised several interesting ideas, arguments, and empirical results relating to the alpha temporal resolution hypothesis. Here we briefly respond to these, and in the process emphasize four challenges for future research: defining the scope and limitation of the hypothesis; developing experimental paradigms and study designs that rigorously test its tenets; decomposing the scalp-level signal and isolating underlying neural circuits; and bringing uniformity to the current diversity of analysis and statistical methods. Addressing these challenges will facilitate the progression from merely correlating alpha frequency with various perceptual phenomena to establishing whether and (if so) how alpha frequency influences sensory integration and segregation.

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