This special focus article was prepared to honor the memory of our National Institutes of Health colleague, friend, and mentor Leslie G. Ungerleider, who passed away in December 2020, and is based on a presentation given at a symposium held in her honor at the National Institutes of Health in September 2022. In this article, we describe an extension of Leslie Ungerleider's influential work on the object analyzer pathway in which the inferior temporal visual cortex interacts with the amygdala, and then discuss a broader role for the amygdala in stimulus–outcome associative learning in humans and nonhuman primates. We summarize extant data from our and others' laboratories regarding two distinct frontal–amygdala circuits that subserve nonsocial and social valuation processes. Both neuropsychological and neurophysiological data suggest a role for the OFC in nonsocial valuation and the ACC in social valuation. More recent evidence supports the possibility that the amygdala functions in conjunction with these frontal regions to subserve these distinct, complex valuation processes. We emphasize the dynamic nature of valuation processes and advocate for additional research on amygdala–frontal interactions in these domains.

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