Humans can extract statistical regularities of the environment to predict upcoming events. Previous research recognized that implicitly acquired statistical knowledge remained persistent and continued to influence behavior even when the regularities were no longer present in the environment. Here, in an fMRI experiment, we investigated how the persistence of statistical knowledge is represented in the brain. Participants (n = 32) completed a visual, four-choice, RT task consisting of statistical regularities. Two types of blocks constantly alternated with one another throughout the task: predictable statistical regularities in one block type and unpredictable ones in the other. Participants were unaware of the statistical regularities and their changing distribution across the blocks. Yet, they acquired the statistical regularities and showed significant statistical knowledge at the behavioral level not only in the predictable blocks but also in the unpredictable ones, albeit to a smaller extent. Brain activity in a range of cortical and subcortical areas, including early visual cortex, the insula, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the right globus pallidus/putamen contributed to the acquisition of statistical regularities. The right insula, inferior frontal gyrus, and hippocampus as well as the bilateral angular gyrus seemed to play a role in maintaining this statistical knowledge. The results altogether suggest that statistical knowledge could be exploited in a relevant, predictable context as well as transmitted to and retrieved in an irrelevant context without a predictable structure.

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